Urogenital Tract Infection

Table. 1.

Basic characteristics of the subfertile males (n=510)


  Total (n=510) Bacteriospermic subfertile males (n=179) Non-bacteriospermic subfertile males (n=331) p-valuea)
Age (y) 36.6±6.9 (29-44) 37.3±6.8 (30-44) 36.1±7.1 (29-43) 0.510
Underlying disease history 0.001
Hypertension 10 (2.0) 3 (1.7) 7 (2.1) 0.021
Chronic prostatitis 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) -
Cerebrovascular disease 2 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.6) 0.056
Diabetes mellitus 24 (4.7) 19 (10.6) 5 (1.5) <0.001 
Presence of LUTS 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) -
Previous history of genital surgery 0.797
Spermatocelectomy 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Hydrocelectomy 9 (1.8) 3 (1.7) 6 (1.8)
Orchiopexy
Due to testicular torsion 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Due to testicular cryptorchidism 2 (0.4) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.3)
Varicocelectomy 13 (2.5) 5 (2.8) 8 (2.4)  
Medical treatment prior to the first visit
Clomiphene citrate 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) -
Testosterone replacement therapy 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) -
Initial hormone level
FSH (mIU/ml) 5.2±1.5 5.1±1.4 5.4±0.9 0.151
LH (mIU/ml) 3.8±1.9 3.9±1.3 3.7±1.7 0.337
Testosterone (ng/ml) 4.8±1.4 5.0±1.2 4.7±1.1 0.242
Prolactin (ng/ml) 5.6±2.3 5.4±2.2 5.9±1.9 0.508
Semen parameters
Volume (ml) 3.0±2.2 2.9±1.7 3.6±1.5 0.196
Sperm concentration (106/ml) 46.2±23.6 43.3±17.4 47.8±20.2 0.655
Total motility (%) 30.0±12.9 20.4±10.0 36.0±8.6 <0.001
Progressive motility (%) 18.1±7.1 11.1±5.3 22.5±4.7 <0.001
Leukocytospermia (106/ml) 0.8±2.1 2.8±1.9 0.3±0.2 0.001
DNA Fragmentation (%) 32.4±15.2 43.2±13.8 30.7±11.5 <0.001
Normal morphology (%) 2.1±2.3 1.5±1.2 2.4±1.5 0.239
Vitality (%) 53.0±9.7 51.7±6.1 55.9±8.4 0.575
Microscopic hematuria <0.001
Overall 125 (24.5) 115 (64.2) 10 (3.0)
Grade, RBCs/HPF
0-3 100 (19.6) 93 (51.9) 7 (2.1)
4-10 20 (3.9) 17 (9.5) 3 (0.9)
11-25 5 (1.0) 5 (2.8) 0 (0.0)
26-50 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Semen pathogen PCR analysis
Pathogen spectrum
Escherichia coli 0 (0.0)
Chlamydia trachomatis 4 (2.2)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0 (0.0)
Ureaplasma parvum 22 (12.3)
Ureaplasma urealyticum 24 (13.4)
Mycoplasma genitalium 11 (6.1)
Mycoplasma hominis 0 (0.0)
Trichomonas vaginalis 0 (0.0)
Gardnerella vaginalis 8 (4.5)
Treponema pallidum 0 (0.0)
Candida albicans 0 (0.0)
Haemophilus ducreyi 0 (0.0)
Atopobium vaginae 4 (2.2)
Streptococcus agalactiae 16 (8.9)
Prevotella bivia 74 (41.3)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0 (0.0)
Klebsiella pneumoniae 0 (0.0)
Enterococcus faecalis 17 (9.5)
Staphylococcus aureus 0 (0.0)
HSV1 0 (0.0)
HSV2 0 (0.0)
Bacteroides fragilis 0 (0.0)
Mobiluncus curtisii 4 (2.2)
Mobiluncus mulieris 0 (0.0)
Multi-microbialb) 21 (11.7)
Pathogen presence in semen, overall 179 (100.0) -
Multi-microbial 21 (11.7)
Mono-microbial   158 (88.3)    
Average alcohol consumptionc) <0.001
0 drinks/wk 121 (23.7) 23 (12.8) 98 (29.6)
1-15 drinks/wk 151 (29.6) 19 (10.6) 132 (39.9)
>15 drinks/wk 238 (46.7) 137 (76.5) 101 (30.5)  
Smoking history 0.576
Never smoked 350 (68.6) 125 (69.8) 225 (68.0)
Current smoker 97 (19.0) 34 (19.0) 63 (19.0)
Previous smoker (current non-smoker) 63 (12.4) 20 (11.2) 43 (13.0)
5-alpha reductase inhibitor treatmentd) 109 (21.4) 29 (16.2) 80 (24.2) 0.039

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation (range), number (%), or mean±standard deviation.

LUTS: lower urinary tract symptoms, FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone, LH: luteinizing hormone, DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, RBCs/HPF: red blood cells/high-power field, PCR: polymerase chain reaction, HSV1: Herpes simplex type-1, HSV2: Herpes simplex type-2, –: not available.

a)p-vlaues <0.05 are printed in bold characters. b)Multi-microbial indicates equal or more than 2 bacterial species present in body fluid. c)1 drink is equivalent to 1 glass of wine or 1 single spirit. d)5-alpha reductase inhibitor was used for the treatment of androgenic alopecia.

Urogenit Tract Infect 2023;18:82-92 https://doi.org/10.14777/uti.2023.18.3.82
© 2023 Urogenit Tract Infect