Urogenital Tract Infection

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Table. 4.

Risk factors for urinary tract infections in spinal cord injury patients and possible interventions

Risk factor Possible interventions
Bladder overdistension - Void or catheterize to keep volumes <400 ml
- Avoid obstruction of indwelling catheter
Low bladder compliance - Anticholinergic or beta-3 agonist medication
- Onabotulinum toxin injections
- Bladder augment/urinary diversion
Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia - Reduce contractility of the bladder with anticholinergic medications or onabotulinum toxin
- Avoid spontaneous or reflexive voiding
Urinary calculi - Treat all bladder stones
- Treat all obstructing calculi
- Treat renal calculi if staghorn
Urinary catheterization - Consider changing indwelling catheters to clean intermittent catheters
- Consider hydrophilic catheter when performing clean intermittent catheters
Neurogenic bowel - Promote regular bowel program

Adapted from Treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients. Linthicum: American Urological Association; 2020. Available from: https://auau.auanet.org/content/update-series-volume-39-2020 [69].

Urogenit Tract Infect 2021;16:32-43 https://doi.org/10.14777/uti.2021.16.2.32
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