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Korean Translation of the GRADE Series Published in the BMJ, ‘GRADE: What Is “Quality of Evidence” and Why Is It Important to Clinicians?’ (A Secondary Publication)
Urogenit Tract Infect 2019 Aug;14(2):64-70
Published online August 30, 2019;
Copyright © 2019 Korean Association of Urogenital Tract Infection and Inflammation.

Translated by: Ho Won Kang, Jae Hung Jung1,2, Do Kyung Kim3, Ja Yoon Ku4, Hyun Jin Jung5, Hong Wook Kim6, Eu Chang Hwang7; Guideline Development Committee in the Korean Association of Urogenital Tract Infection and Inflammation

Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, 1Department of Urology and 2Institute of Evidence Based Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, 3Department of Urology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Urology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 5Department of Urology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu, 6Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon, 7Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun, Korea
Correspondence to: Eu Chang Hwang
Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, 322 Seoyang-ro, Hwasuneup, Hwasun 58128, Korea
Tel: +82-61-379-7747, Fax: +82-61-379-7750
Received August 30, 2019; Revised August 30, 2019; Accepted August 30, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article is second translation of a GRADE series published in the BMJ to create a highly structured, transparent, and informative system for rating quality of evidence for developing recommendations. The process to develop a guideline, we should formulate a clear question with specification of all outcomes of importance to patients. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) offers four levels of evidence quality: high, moderate, low, and very low for these patient-important outcomes. Randomized trials begin as high quality evidence and observational studies as low quality evidence. Although randomized trials begin as high quality evidence, quality may be downgraded as a result of study limitations (risk of bias), inconsistency (variability in results), indirectness, imprecision (wide confidence intervals), or publication bias. While the quality of evidence derived from observational studies starts at ‘low’ but may be upgraded based on a very large magnitude of effect, a dose-response gradient, and if all plausible biases would reduce an apparent treatment effect.

August 2019, 14 (2)

  • The official journal of

    The Korean Association of Urogenital Tract Infection and Inflammation

    The Korean Continence Society

    The Han-nam Urological Association

    The Korean Society of Geriatric Urological Care